Contributions of the Tang and Song dynasties? | Yahoo Answers
Tang Dynasty was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by . New inventions from the T'ang dynasty included the magnetic compass, gunpowder, .. The beginnings of this decline are commonly dated to the year , when Tang .. Questions or comments, e-mail [email protected] com. The period of the Tang Dynasty ( to ) was also known as the “Golden Age ” in the history of China. Tang emperors expanded their influence in to. Good Websites and Sources on the Tang Dynasty: Wikipedia ; Google Book: China's A painting on silk cloth dated to the A.D. mid-8th century found in the tomb of a rich . of Chinese culture, they praise calligraphy as one of the Tang's crowning achievements. Questions or comments, e-mail [email protected] com.
Great bells have fallen in the ruined temple; Bell frames have collapsed and suspend no more Several important Buddhist pilgrims and translators resided there around the beginning of the fifth century, among them Faxian, who traveled to India, and the scholar Kumarajiva.
The revival came to an end in civil strife, and for over a century after a conquering army took the city init ceased to be the capital. A brief revival in the second half of the sixth century ended abruptly with the accession of the Sui dynasty insince the first Sui emperor decided to build an entirely new city to the south of Han Chang'an and on the exact location of the modern Xian.
The choice of the site and the layout of the city were in part determined by divination with reference to astrological signs. Mather, foreword to Xiong, p. It suffered major damage during the An Lushan rebellion in the mid-8th century, but even toward the end of the Tang period, when the empire was in disarray, the "enormous size" of the city impressed an Arab visitor. Zoroastrianism, Nestorianism and Manichaeism.
The most famous of all the Buddhist pilgrims, Xuanzang, had to sneak out of Chang'an inbut by his return in would be greeted by a huge throng.
Apart from the remarkable feat of his journey, his great accomplishment was to bring back copies of the Indian scriptures that he spent his remaining days translating. One of the few major Era-era buildings left in Xian today is the Big Wild Goose Dayan Pagoda, first built in in the Daci'en Monastery to house the library Xuanzang collected the current structure was re-built in Even in a period when persecution of Buddhism had begun, a Japanese pilgrim noted in that there were over Buddhist temples in Chang'an.
A stele inscribed stone pillar erected in relates the introduction of Nestorian Christianity as early as by Syrian priests.
Zoroastrianism received some impetus when the last of the Sassanian Iranian princes Firuz took refuge in China in the s, having fled the Arab invasions. Manichaeism also was connected with the arrival of Persians at the Tang court as early as It really flourished though only after the An Lushan rebellion, when the Tang dynasty was saved by the support of the Manichaean Uighurs.
All of these religions and Buddhism as well suffered from religious persecutions initiated in However, it continued to play a role in the western trade and experienced a revival under the Ming beginning in the late fourteenth century.
The southern gate Nan Men was built in The bell tower Zong Lou located at the intersection of the main north-south streets in the exact center of the walled part of the city was built in and then rebuilt several times. The city still preserves something of its former cosmopolitan culture, notably in its large Muslim community. The Great Mosque Qingzhen Dasi was first built inbut the structures one sees to day date largely are no earlier than the late Ming.
Yangzhou was the headquarters for the Tang's government monopoly on salt, and the greatest industrial center of China; it acted as a midpoint in shipping of foreign goods that would be organized and distributed to the major cities of the north.
Much like the seaport of Guangzhou in the south, Yangzhou boasted thousands of foreign traders from all across Asia. In the year she had more thanfamilies more thanpeople from around the region of Chang'an move to populate Luoyang instead. With a population of about a million, Luoyang became the second largest capital in the empire, and with its close proximity to the Luo River it benefited from southern agricultural fertility and trade traffic of the Grand Canal.
As early asgranaries were built at critical points along the route from Yangzhou to Chang'an, which eliminated shipment delays, spoilage, and pilfering. An artificial lake used as a transshipment pool was dredged east of Chang'an inwhere curious northerners could finally see the array of boats found in southern China, delivering tax and tribute items to the imperial court.
The Ming dynasty encyclopedist Song Yingxing — noted that rice was not counted amongst the five grains from the time of the legendary and deified Chinese sage Shennong the existence of whom Yingxing wrote was "an uncertain matter" into the 2nd millenniums B. The various meats that were consumed included pork, chicken, lamb especially preferred in the northsea otter, bear which was hard to catch, but there were recipes for steamed, boiled, and marinated bearand even Bactrian camels.
In the south along the coast meat from seafood was by default the most common, as the Chinese enjoyed eating cooked jellyfish with cinnamon, Sichuan pepper, cardamom, and ginger, as well as oysters with wine, fried squid with ginger and vinegar, horseshoe crabs and red swimming crabs, shrimp and pufferfish, which the Chinese called "river piglet". The common people used simple methods of preservation, such as digging deep ditches and trenches, brining, and salting their foods.
The emperor had large ice pits located in the parks in and around Chang'an for preserving food, while the wealthy and elite had their own smaller ice pits. Each year the emperor had laborers carve blocks of ice from frozen creeks in mountain valleys, each block with the dimension of 3 ft 0. There were many frozen delicacies enjoyed during the summer, especially chilled melon. Tea was viewed then as a beverage of tasteful pleasure and with pharmacological purpose as well.
During the Tang dynasty, tea became synonymous with everything sophisticated in society. The poet Lu Tong — devoted most of his poetry to his love of tea.
Although wrapping paper had been used in China since the 2nd century B. Indeed, paper found many other uses besides writing and wrapping during the Tang era. In China, there was a great demand for sugar; during the reign of Harsha over North India r.
Cotton also came from India as a finished product from Bengal, although it was during the Tang that the Chinese began to grow and process cotton, and by the Yuan dynasty it became the prime textile fabric in China. Wikipedia] According to Silk Road Foundation: In everyday things, the Chinese had learned from India ways of making sugar from cane, wince from grapes, and of making optical lenses.
Spinach, garlic, mustard and peas introduced from the Silk Road, were now grown in China. Of these the most popular were little "foreign" cakes of various kinds, especially a steamed variety sprinkled with sesame seeds, and cakes fried in oil. The art of making these had been introduced from the West but they were ordinarily prepared and sold by Westerners.
Of course some of the foreign recipes required expensive imported ingredients was costly. Especially popular were aromatic and spicy dishes. The taste for all sorts of foreign luxuries and wonders permeated every social class and every part of daily life. Horses were imported from Karashar and Kucha, glass goblet from Byzantium, jade from Khotan, medicine from Kashimir and India, crystals and agate from Samarkand and cotton from Turfan.
Paper money, a Chinese invention? — Museum of the National Bank of Belgium
In exchange, silk textiles, tea, paper, ceramics and above all, ideas and technology moved into these regions. Fashions in the two capitals, Ch'ang-an and Loyang tended to follow Turkish and East Iranian styles and most men and women liked to wear "barbarian" hats when they went abroad or on horseback. Court ladies wore "Uighur chignons. The most extreme enthusiasm for foreign customs was reported when the prince Li, Cheng-chien, Tai-tsung's son, preferred to speak Turkish than Chinese, and erected a complete Turkish camp on the palace ground, where he lived and dressed like a Turk.
Metalwork of bronze, gold and silver flourished with Persian designs. Pottery and porcelain became more and more beautiful. One aspect of the figurines which has attracted much interest is the frequency of foreign faces among them.
The artists of Tang loved to show the gods and saints of foreign lands and the sculptors loved horses and alien faces. The exoticism in the arts showed the foreigners were widely active in Chinese life. Foreign activities in fields such as the Palace Guard, entertainment and commerce are frequently reflected in the figurines. The strange features of these foreigners which most struck the Chinese, then as now, were their great noses and hairy faces, features which were a gift to the craftsmen in clay.
He was a Khotanese and came to the Chinese court in the mid 7th century. He brought a new painting style of Iranian origin and had profound influence in Chinese Buddhist art. He was credited with having helped bring the Western technique of using a line of unvarying thickness to outline figures -- the "iron-wire" line -- to the Buddhist temples in many Chinese cities. This included a 3 ft 0. This intricate device used a hydraulic pump that siphoned wine out of metal dragon-headed faucets, as well as tilting bowls that were timed to dip wine down, by force of gravity when filled, into an artificial lake that had intricate iron leaves popping up as trays for placing party treats.
When the cup was 80 percent full, the dragon ceased spewing ale, and a guest immediately seized the goblet. If he was slow in draining the cup and returning it to the leaf, the door of a pavilion at the top of the mountain opened and a mechanical wine server, dressed in a cap and gown, emerged with a wooden bat in his hand.
There was also an automatic wine-server known in the ancient Greco-Roman world, a design of Heron of Alexandria that employed an urn with an inner valve and a lever device similar to the one described above. There are many stories of automatons used in the Tang, including general Yang Wulian's wooden statue of a monk who stretched his hands out to collect contributions; when the amount of coins reached a certain weight, the mechanical figure moved his arms to deposit them in a satchel.
This weight-and-lever mechanism was exactly like Heron's penny slot machine. Other devices included one by Wang Ju, whose "wooden otter" could allegedly catch fish; Needham suspects a spring trap of some kind was employed here.
During the Tang dynasty, a gazetteer of Sichuan province stated that at one of these meter feet 'fire wells', men collected natural gas into portable bamboo tubes which could be carried around for dozens of kilometers mi and still produce a flame.
InEmperor Xuanzong had a "Cool Hall" built in the imperial palace, which the Tang Yulin describes as having water-powered fan wheels for air conditioning as well as rising jet streams of water from fountains. During the subsequent Song dynasty, written sources mentioned the air conditioning rotary fan as even more widely used.
The Chinese divided the day into temporary hours, which were determined by the amount of sunlight on a given day and varied with time of year. This was used alongside a clepsydra clock and waterwheel to power a rotating armillary sphere in representation of astronomical observation. Yi Xing's device also had a mechanically timed bell that was struck automatically every hour, and a drum that was struck automatically every quarter-hour; essentially, a striking clock.
However, the most common type of public and palace timekeeping device was the inflow clepsydra. Its design was improved c. They provided a steelyard balance that allowed seasonal adjustment in the pressure head of the compensating tank and could then control the rate of flow for different lengths of day and night.
Block printing on paper was widely developed in the Tang dynasty. The emperor's library in the 7th century held about forty thousand manuscript rolls. Before giving China full credit for inventing printing it must pointed out the wood-block printing invented by the Chinese was very different from the movable type printing used by Gutenberg to print his famous Bible in the 15th century.
They collected the lamp black from burning oils or woods and compounded it into a stick, which then dissolved to the black liquid that we call India ink. A copy of the Diamond Sutra found at Dunhuang is the earliest surviving full-length book printed at regular size, complete with illustrations embedded within the text and dated precisely to Among the earliest documents to be printed were Buddhist texts as well as calendars, the latter essential for calculating and marking which days were auspicious and which days were not.
Wikipedia] The world's oldest surviving book, the Diamond Sutra, was printed with wooden blocks in China in A. He sits on a dragon chair by a go board. A man in red goes to discuss a matter, his back adorned with a jester, suggesting that he is a court actor.
The Qing emperor Qianlong's poetic inscription criticizes Minghuang for his infatuation with the concubine Yang Guifei, attributing his eventual neglect of state affairs for the calamities that befell the Tang dynasty. Scholarly research also suggests this handscroll may depict Minghuang playing go with a Japanese monk.
The old attribution is to the Five Dynasties figure painter Zhou Wenju, but the style is closer to that of the Yuan dynasty artist Ren Renfa Guo Ziyi was ordered by the Tang court to defend Jingyang but was hopelessly outnumbered. When the advancing army of Uighurs heard of Guo's renown, their chieftain requested a meeting with him.
Guo thereupon took off his helmet and armor to lead a few dozen cavalry and meet the chieftain. The Uighur chieftain was so impressed by Guo's loyalty to the Tang and his bravery that he also discarded his weapons, dismounted, and bowed in respect. In it, Guo Ziyi is shown leaning over and holding out his hand as a mutual sign of respect at the meeting, reflecting the composure and magnanimity of this famous general at the time.
The lines in the drapery patterns here flow with ease, having much of the pure and untrammeled quality of literati painting. Although this work bears a signature of Li Gonglin, judging from the style, it appears to be a later addition. The figures of the ladies here are plump and their faces done with white makeup.
The horses are muscular as the ladies proceed on horseback in a leisurely and carefree manner. In fact, all the figures and horses, as well as the clothing, hairstyles, and coloring method, are in the Tang dynasty style.
Though this work bears no seal or signature of the artist, later connoisseurs attributed it to the hand of Li Gonglin perhaps because he specialized in figures and horses.
However, judging from the style here, it was completed probably sometime after the Southern Song period He was also gifted at poetry, painting, and calligraphy. The original work was done between andwhen Mi Fu was serving in Lianshui Prefecture, representing the peak of his career.
Ming Dynasty - HISTORY
In this letter, Mi Fu gives a recommendation for cursive script to a friend, saying that he should select from the virtues of Wei and Jin calligraphers and pursue an archaic manner. The brushwork throughout this work is sharp and fluent. Though unbridled, it is not unregulated. Marvelous brushwork emerges from the dots and strokes as the characters appear upright and leaning in an agreeable composition of line spacing. Creating a maximum effect of change, it overflows with the vigor of straightforward freedom.
When people talk about the Tang Dynasty as the golden age of Chinese culture, they praise calligraphy as one of the Tang's crowning achievements. In the Tang Dynasty the government set up academies for studying calligraphy.
Calligraphy was used to evaluate a person and was considered as a way in selecting talents. There were six subjects in the National Academy and calligraphy was one of them. The whole society, from the emperors to ordinary people, treated calligraphy passionately. Because of his favor, most calligraphers at that time studied Wang Hsi-Chih's styles. All calligraphy styles were widely seen in the Tang Dynasty. Zhang Shui had instructed monk Huai Su. As for Kai Shu, many calligraphers in the Tang Dynasty reached another peak after Wei Bei and set standards for generations to follow.
The regular script was believed to have reached its maturity during the early Tang, representing a culmination of previous regional developments. Patricia Buckley Ebrey, University of Washington, depts.
Although the majority of calligraphers during the Tang period made their most distinctive contributions to the development of a mature standard or regular script, the cursive script type would in time be the most favored for its ability to express the individual calligrapher's aesthetic preferences and inner character.
In later writings on Chinese calligraphy, each historical period would be associated with a particular script type and the attitudes attributed to it. For example, the Six Dynasties period is associated with the cursive and running scripts, with a primary emphasis on "resonance" and harmony, likely because of the close relationship between calligraphy and lyric expression in poetry during this era.
The practice of calligraphy became high art with the innovations of Wang Xizhi in the fourth century. During the Tang dynastystandard script prevailed and the methods and rules were firmly established so that Tang dynasty standard script became the model for later generations. During the Tang dynasty, calligraphers experimented with free, liberated forms of cursive script.
In the Sung Dynastycalligraphers experimented with running script and developed a multitude of styles in which they expressed their ideas and feelings in their writing. In the YuanMing and Qingcalligraphers returned to the past for inspiration.
Pioneering calligraphers in the Han dynasty created styles that became models for later calligraphers. His original manuscripts were greatly coveted by a the 7th century Tang Emperor Taizong who tried to obtain them by trickery from monk who was sworn to destroy them. Wang's son Wang Hsien-chih Wang Xianzhi, was also a great calligrapher. Tang Calligraphy Aesthetics Li Po calligraphy Tang era calligraphy is known for both its powerful court styles and experimental new styles. Although the Tang period is closely associated with the standard script as a result of its being adopted by the court, other types continued to be in use.
Patricia Buckley Ebrey of the University of Washington wrote: There was also a very close relationship between poetry and calligraphy as practiced by the educated elite from this time forward. More and more people who practiced calligraphy sought to develop facility with a variety of styles and script types.
One of the means by which they did so was copying familiar texts that contained a wide range of simple and complicated characters. Here, the properly written character assumes the identity of a Confucian sage, strong in backbone, but spare in flesh: Leaning or standing upright like a proper gentleman, the upper half [of the character] sits comfortably, while the bottom half supports it. Calligraphy that has much bone but slight flesh is called sinew-writing; that with much flesh but slight bone is called ink-pig.
Calligraphy with much strength and rich in sinew is of sagelike quality; that with neither strength nor sinew is sick. Every writer proceeds in accordance with the manifestation of his digestion and respiration of energy. Sun Guoting, 7th century. Description of the calligraphy of Wang Xizhi by Emperor Wu [r. Chinese characters are dynamic, closely bound to the forces of nature and the kinesthetic energies of the human body.
But these energies are contained within a balanced framework—supported by a strong skeletal structure—whose equilibrium suggests moral rectitude, indeed, that of the writer himself. Zhiyong was also the teacher of Yu Shinan, an assistant in the Palace Library at the Sui court who went on to hold more senior academic positions at the early Tang court under Taizong. The Tang emperor appreciated Yu's steadfast personality and extensive learning as well as his excellence as a calligrapher. Copying in China, on the other hand, was seen as a valuable educational tool, allowing the writer to model his writing stylistically, and more importantly, himself, on the character and intellect of the master calligrapher whose mode of writing he practiced.
Until the widespread use of printing in China after the Tang dynasty, religious texts were copied by hand. Buddhist texts in particular were copied in great numbers by monks or by individuals. Copies of the entire Buddhist canon were undertaken by imperial decree, and often the work of many individual calligraphers went into the completion of various sutra texts, which could be quite long. When sutra texts were commissioned, it was common practice to have the most talented calligraphers do the first and last scrolls, with the work parceled out to other scribes in between.
The brush used for sutra copying was different in shape from a regular calligraphy brush, with a much shorter tip.
Decorative refinements, such as the use of specially made papers and gold or silver inks, were employed in the copying of religious texts, but rarely occur in secular examples. He commissioned professional copyists to do careful reproductions of the works in the imperial collection and patronized Wang-style calligraphers at his court, many of whom held high-ranking posts.
Taizong took Wang Xizhi as the model for his own writing, which he practiced using copies provided by Yu Shinan who because of his teacher Zhiyong was believed to be the closest Tang dynasty practitioner to the original Wang style. Of the more prominent academicians at Taizong's court, Yu Shinan and Ouyang Xun were valued as keepers of the calligraphic tradition, serving as tutors to the sons of nobility and as scholars of rank in the Palace library and Institute for the Advancement of Literature, respectively.
Whenever Chang painted when he was drunk it was said that his brushes flied and danced with unbridled emotion. Huai Su was even less restrained than Chang Hsu. He was famous from his extremely fluid and spontaneous "wild" cursive. They served as tutors to the sons of nobility and as scholars of rank in the Palace library and Institute for the Advancement of Literature, respectively.
The characters in their calligraphy was regular script. Both precision and spontaneity were required to make high-quality works. The style used in his early life was said to be solid and firm. The sensitive, delicate style of his later years has been described as "a frail lady unable to bear the weight of her own garments.
Only characters of the original one thousand characters are left. The Handscroll is Cursive Script, Ink on paper length: As the central political sphere declined, there was an upsurge in localized unorthodox creative activity which seemed to stand outside all previous traditions. Wild cursive, a radically modified version of the draft cursive script of the Han dynasty, can be seen as a reaction against the atrophied writing styles of later Wang tradition calligraphers.
It is believed that he was further influenced by the Daoist practice of automatic writing in sand. Zhang Xu's calligraphic style is widely praised, especially by later scholars, yet one of the by-products of his style is a pronounced deformation of word structures. The monk Huaisu ? AD was a man of letters; also known as the "Drunken Monk," he followed Zhang Xu's wild cursive mode of writing. In one of the extant examples of his calligraphy, Huaisu complains about eating bitter bamboo shoots, and also admits his unbounded passion for liquor and fish.
The sample of Huaisu's writing below is an autobiographical essay that includes comments on his own study of calligraphy. He was a dedicated and brilliant military figure who suffered great personal loss at the hands of aspirants to the throne yet remained unswerving in his loyalty to the legitimate ruling house.
One of the requisite techniques of Chinese calligraphy is maintaining the brush's upright position in order to transfer more directly and powerfully the flow of energy from hand to paper.
From Yan Zhenqing's time forward, saying someone wrote with an "upright brush" carried an especially strong tone of moral approbation. His calligraphy was particularly influential among literati of the Northern Song, including Su Dongpo and Huang Tingjian. Some examples are criticized for being too "fleshy" while lacking in bone structure. Yan Zhenqing's regular script inscriptions contrasts with the more orthodox court tradition that favored the elegance and ease of Wang Xizhi style calligraphy, represented by Chu Suiliang from the time of Taizong and Li Yong, the foremost Wang tradition calligrapher of the first half of the eighth century.
Although some of Yan Zhenqing's calligraphy is riddled with mistakes and corrections, his writing has been especially valued by connoisseurs.
10 Major Achievements of Tang Dynasty of China
Carved into a cliff on the eastern side of Singing Sand Mountain and stretching for more than a mile, the grottoes are one of the largest treasure house of grotto art in China and the world.
Outside Mogao Caves All together there are caves with art work on five levels, 45, square meters of murals, more than painted clay figures and five wooden structures. The grottoes contain Buddha statues and lovely paintings of paradise, asparas angels and the patrons who commissioned the paintings.
The oldest cave dates back to the 4th century. The largest cave is feet high. It houses a foot-tall Buddha statue installed during the Tang Dynasty A. Many caves are so small they can only can accommodate a few people at a time. The smallest cave is only a foot high. A total of caves have been excavated by archaeologists, who have unearthed monk's living quarters, meditation cells, burial chambers, silver coins, wooden printing blocker written in the Uighar and copies Psalms of written in the Syriac language, herbal pharmacopoeias, calendars, medical treatises, folk songs, real estate deals, Taoist tracts, Buddhist sutras, historical records and documents written in dead languages such as Tangut, Tokharian, Runic and Turkic.
History of Mogao Grottoes Mogao Cave Mogao was a major center of Buddhist scholarship and a trading post on the Silk Road for more than a thousand years, until when the Chinese withdrew their garrisons and the area was taken over by the Mongols. The caves were largely abandoned after that. The painters made it feel like the whole universe was moving.
Inthe British-Hungarian archeologist Sir Aurel Stein paid Wang four silver pieces and hauled off thousands of manuscripts, silk scroll paintings and wood slips, and the Diamond Sutra out of China. Mogao Cave Northern Liang A. Although this cave is tiny, it has a relatively large statue in front of the main west wall; nevertheless, the proportions are harmonious.
This main statue, 3. It is a Bodhisattva identified as Maitreya, the future Buddha. He has a round face, a robust physique and a calm expression. The handsome face has very long ear loops, straight nose, contoured lips and lightly protruding eyes, which are looking down compassionately on the visitor. Wearing a crown containing three round jewels with a Buddha in the centre jewelhe sits cross-ankled. His sitting pose and decoration, as well as the triangular brocade-patterned backrest, suggest influences from Central Asia.
Dunhuang Research Academy, March 27, public. The worship to Maitreya in China reached its zenith between the 5th and the 6th centuries, especially in the north. The cross-ankled sitting pose is the most popular among his statues of that time. The inner two on each wall are carved in the traditional Chinese building style — each has a gateway with a central tiled roof flanked by towers known as que in Chinese.
Inside each niche is a Bodhisattva seated cross-ankled. Que were popular until the Han dynasty the 3rd century for palaces and royal tombs, but few examples are found now. They are moulded and painted with details in Mogaoku. It contains very precious information on the history of Chinese architecture.
These two niches are decorated in Indian style, with spreading branches of two trees on its arched top. Since the original front wall had collapsed, in the Northern Song a partition wall was built to provide some protection, and a new layer of mural was painted on the ceiling and part of the walls.
This partition wall was removed in the s, revealing the original layer. Another part of the mural was also damaged by the construction of a hole in the Qing used for the convenience of walking to the adjacent cave. The hole is now filled. Each of them consists of several episodes within a single rectangular space, with multiple depictions of the same person to represent different times and places within the same scene. The dominant figures in all scenes are always larger in scale. All the figures are dressed and decorated in Central Asian style.
The imported Indian colour shading technique yun-ran was employed, but the red or reddish brown has oxidized and turned to dark grey, and the white highlight has become off-white on the human faces.
Dunhuang Research Academy,March 27, public. Here, on the south wall, only the first and the last were depicted to imply them all. From the first three, the young prince is aware that life is impermanent so it causes suffering, while the fourth sets out a path for liberation. The third king can tolerate his body to be used for lighting a thousand lamps; the fourth has a thousand nails nailed into his body, and the fifth gives away his eyes. These tales all signify self-sacrifice — especially of the physical self.
The subject of these murals illustrates the message that achieving enlightenment requires toleration of pain and the sacrifices of self. These men, 18 cm high, are clad in nomadic riding dress. All of them are shown in three-quarter view, lining up behind one another and facing in the direction of the procession. They hold a softly bent flower in their raised hand. A monk, who is taller than the others by a head, leads with an incense burner.
According to their costumes, some suggest they belong to the Xianbei tribe who were active patrons at the time. Later inToba clan of the tribe founded the Northern Wei dynasty. It has a square central pillar with niches on each side and a flat ceiling with painted coffering.
The front portion of the cave has a gable ceiling with bas-relief simulated rafts in red. This design combines Chinese and Central Asian architectural features.