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Fusion of ancestral chromosomes left distinctive remnants of telomeres, and a vestigial centromere Evidence for the evolution of Homo sapiens from a common ancestor with chimpanzees is found in the number of chromosomes in humans as compared to all other members of Hominidae. All hominidae have 24 pairs of chromosomes, except humans, who have only 23 pairs.

Human chromosome 2 is a result of an end-to-end fusion of two ancestral chromosomes. The correspondence of chromosome 2 to two ape chromosomes. The closest human relative, the common chimpanzeehas near-identical DNA sequences to human chromosome 2, but they are found in two separate chromosomes.

The same is true of the more distant gorilla and orangutan. Normally a chromosome has just one centromere, but in chromosome 2 there are remnants of a second centromere.

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These are normally found only at the ends of a chromosome, but in chromosome 2 there are additional telomere sequences in the middle. Ijdo, "We conclude that the locus cloned in cosmids c8. Cytochrome c A classic example of biochemical evidence for evolution is the variance of the ubiquitous i.

The variance of cytochrome c of different organisms is measured in the number of differing amino acids, each differing amino acid being a result of a base pair substitution, a mutation. If each differing amino acid is assumed the result of one base pair substitution, it can be calculated how long ago the two species diverged by multiplying the number of base pair substitutions by the estimated time it takes for a substituted base pair of the cytochrome c gene to be successfully passed on.

For example, if the average time it takes for a base pair of the cytochrome c gene to mutate is N years, the number of amino acids making up the cytochrome c protein in monkeys differ by one from that of humans, this leads to the conclusion that the two species diverged N years ago. The primary structure of cytochrome c consists of a chain of about amino acids. Many higher order organisms possess a chain of amino acids. Both chicken and turkeys have identical sequence homology amino acid for amino acidas do pigscows and sheep.

Both humans and chimpanzees share the identical molecule, while rhesus monkeys share all but one of the amino acids: The different existing configurations of amino acids do not significantly affect the functionality of the protein, which indicates that the base pair substitutions are not part of a directed design, but the result of random mutations that aren't subject to selection.

It is considered most useful in determining relationships within families and genera. Comparative studies involving cytochrome b have resulted in new classification schemes and have been used to assign newly described species to a genus, as well as deepen the understanding of evolutionary relationships. The retroviruses or virogenes are always passed on to the next generation of that organism that received the infection. This leaves the virogene left in the genome.

Because this event is rare and random, finding identical chromosomal positions of a virogene in two different species suggests common ancestry. The standard phylogenetic tree for Felidae have smaller cats Felis chausFelis silvestrisFelis nigripesand Felis catus diverging from larger cats such as the subfamily Pantherinae and other carnivores.

The fact that small cats have an ERV where the larger cats do not suggests that the gene was inserted into the ancestor of the small cats after the larger cats had diverged. Humans contain numerous ERVs that comprise a considerable percentage of the genome. Humans and chimps share seven different occurrences of virogenes, while all primates share similar retroviruses congruent with phylogeny. Haldane and extended via diffusion theory by Motoo Kimuraallow predictions about the genetic structure of evolving populations.

Direct examination of the genetic structure of modern populations via DNA sequencing has allowed verification of many of these predictions. For example, the Out of Africa theory of human origins, which states that modern humans developed in Africa and a small sub-population migrated out undergoing a population bottleneckimplies that modern populations should show the signatures of this migration pattern. Specifically, post-bottleneck populations Europeans and Asians should show lower overall genetic diversity and a more uniform distribution of allele frequencies compared to the African population.

Both of these predictions are borne out by actual data from a number of studies. For example, the basic structure of all flowers consists of sepalspetalsstigma, style and ovary ; yet the size, colournumber of parts and specific structure are different for each individual species. The neural anatomy of fossilized remains may also be compared using advanced imaging techniques.

Once thought of as a refutation to evolutionary theory, atavisms are "now seen as potent evidence of how much genetic potential is retained Due to the complexity and interrelatedness of the factors involved in the development of atavisms, both biologists and medical professionals find it "difficult, if not impossible, to distinguish [them] from malformations.

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