El Salvador - Wikipedia
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For ten years the Lencas prevented the Spanish from building a permanent settlement. Then the Spanish returned with more soldiers, including about 2, forced conscripts from indigenous communities in Guatemala.
Antu Silan Ulap eventually handed over control of the Lenca resistance to Lempira also called Empira. Lempira was noteworthy among indigenous leaders in that he mocked the Spanish by wearing their clothes after capturing them and using their weapons captured in battle.
Lempira fought in command of thousands of Lenca forces for six more years in El Salvador and Honduras until he was killed in battle. The remaining Lenca forces retreated into the hills. The Spanish were then able to rebuild their garrison town of San Miguel in Reino de Guatemalacreated in as an administrative division of New Spain.
The Salvadoran territory was administered by the Mayor of Sonsonate, with San Salvador being established as an intendancia in Towards the end ofa combination of internal and external factors motivated Central American elites to attempt to gain independence from the Spanish Crown.
The most important internal factors were the desire of local elites to control the country's affairs free of involvement from Spanish authorities, and the long-standing Creole aspiration for independence. The main external factors motivating the independence movement were the success of the French and American revolutions in the 18th century, and the weakening of the Spanish Crown's military power as a result of the Napoleonic Warswith the resulting inability to control its colonies effectively.
This insurrection was suppressed and many of its leaders were arrested and served sentences in jail.
Dida (footballer, born 1973)
Another insurrection was launched inand again this insurrection was also suppressed. Independence In in light of unrest in Guatemala, Spanish authorities capitulated and signed the Act of Independence of Central Americawhich released all of the Captaincy of Guatemala comprising current territories of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica and the Mexican state of Chiapas from Spanish rule and declared its independence.
El Salvador resisted, insisting on autonomy for the Central American countries. A Mexican military detachment marched to San Salvador and suppressed dissent, but with the fall of Iturbide on 19 Marchthe army decamped back to Mexico.
Shortly thereafter, the authorities of the provinces revoked the vote to join Mexico, deciding instead to form a federal union of the five remaining provinces.
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Chiapas permanently joined Mexico at this juncture. When the Federal Republic of Central America dissolved inEl Salvador maintained its own government until it joined Honduras and Nicaragua in to form the Greater Republic of Central Americawhich dissolved in After the midth century, the economy was based on coffee growing.
As the world market for indigo withered away, the economy prospered or suffered as the world coffee price fluctuated. The enormous profits that coffee yielded as a monoculture export served as an impetus for the concentration of land into the hands of an oligarchy of just a few families. Inthe national guard was created as a rural police force. Once in office he revived the practice of presidents designating their successors.
After serving his term, he remained active in the Army of El Salvador, and was killed July 11,at El Jicaro during a war against Guatemala. Until El Salvador was politically stable, with undercurrents of popular discontent. Manuel Enrique Araujo was killed inmany hypotheses were advanced for the political motive of his murder. Araujo's administration was followed by the Melendez-Quinonez dynasty that lasted from to His government lasted only nine months before it was overthrown by junior military officers who accused his Labor Party of lacking political and governmental experience and of using its government offices inefficiently.
President Araujo faced general popular discontent, as the people had expected economic reforms and the redistribution of land. There were demonstrations in front of the National Palace from the first week of his administration.
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His vice president and minister of war was Gen. Only the First Regiment of Cavalry and the National Police defended the presidency the National Police had been on its payrollbut later that night, after hours of fighting, the badly outnumbered defenders surrendered to rebel forces.
The Directorate, composed of officers, hid behind a shadowy figure,  a rich anti-Communist banker called Rodolfo Duke, and later installed the ardent fascist Gen. The revolt was probably due to the army's discontent at not having been paid by President Araujo for some months. Araujo left the National Palace and unsuccessfully tried to organize forces to defeat the revolt. He resigned six months prior to running for re-election, winning back the presidency as the only candidate on the ballot.
He ruled from tothen from to He began a fourth term inbut resigned in May after a general strike. Only Cuenca survived; the other insurgents were killed by the government. After the capture of the movement leaders, the insurrection erupted in a disorganized and mob-controlled fashion, resulting in government repression that was later referred to as La Matanza The Massacrebecause tens of thousands of peasants died in the ensuing chaos on the orders of President Martinez.
Their goal was to help poor and underprivileged Salvadorans through the use of Marxist-Leninist ideology strongly rejecting Stalinism.
They helped start a guerrilla revolt of indigenous farmers. The government responded by killing over 30, people at what was to have been a "peaceful meeting" in ; this became known as La Matanza The Slaughter. The Communist-led rebellion, fomented by collapsing coffee prices, enjoyed some initial success, but was soon drowned in a bloodbath.
Historically, the high Salvadoran population density has contributed to tensions with neighboring Hondurasas land-poor Salvadorans emigrated to less densely populated Honduras and established themselves as squatters on unused or underused land. This phenomenon was a major cause of the Football War between the two countries. They share common ideals, but one represents the middle class and the latter the interests of the Salvadoran military.
Duarte later ran for president with a political grouping called the National Opposition Union UNO but was defeated in the presidential elections. He lost to the ex-Minister of Interior, Col. Arturo Armando Molinain an election that was widely viewed as fraudulent; Molina was declared the winner even though Duarte was said to have received a majority of the votes.
Duarte, at some army officers' request, supported a revolt to protest the election fraud, but was captured, tortured and later exiled. Duarte returned to the country in to enter politics after working on projects in Venezuela as an engineer. Salvadoran Civil War — Further information: It nationalized many private companies and took over much privately owned land. The purpose of this new junta was to stop the revolutionary movement already underway in response to Duarte's stolen election.
Nevertheless, the oligarchy opposed agrarian reformand a junta formed with young liberal elements from the army such as Gen. Gutierrez  as well as with progressives such as Guillermo Ungo and Alvarez.
A billboard serving as a reminder of one of many massacres that occurred during the civil war. Pressure from the oligarchy soon dissolved the junta because of its inability to control the army in its repression of the people fighting for unionization rights, agrarian reform, better wages, accessible health care and freedom of expression.
In the meantime, the guerrilla movement was spreading to all sectors of Salvadoran society. By the end of the s, death squads were killing about 10 people each day, and the FMLN had 6, — 8, active guerrillas and hundreds of thousands of part-time militia, supporters, and sympathizers. However, a revolution was already underway and his new role as head of the junta was seen by the general population as opportunistic.
He was unable to influence the outcome of the insurrection. He was considered "the voice of the voiceless", but he was assassinated by a death squad while saying Mass on 24 March An unknown number of people "disappeared" during the conflict, and the UN reports that more than 75, were killed. This event, held at Chapultepec Castle in Mexico, was attended by U. After signing the armistice, the president stood up and shook hands with all the now ex-guerrilla commanders, an action which was widely admired.
Post-war —present The so-called Chapultepec Peace Accords mandated reductions in the size of the army, and the dissolution of the National Police, the Treasury Police, the National Guard and the Civilian Defense, a paramilitary group.
A new Civil Police was to be organized. Economic reforms since the early s brought major benefits in terms of improved social conditions, diversification of the export sector, and access to international financial markets at investment grade level. Crime remains a major problem for the investment climate. Dida was relatively untested during the goalless regulation and extra-time periods save for a stop of a late Alessandro Del Piero shot,  but saved from David TrezeguetMarcelo Zalayeta and Paolo Montero in the penalty shootout that saw five of the first seven shots collectively stopped by Dida and Juventus' star goalkeeper Gianluigi Buffon.
Internazionale flare incident and Miracle in Istanbul[ edit ] Milan started —05 by winning the Supercoppa Italianaand the first half of the Serie A season saw Dida nearly insurmountable in net. After he was sent off in the Rossoneri's season opener against Livorno he conceded only ten goals as Milan went unbeaten in 17 of their next 18 league matches, among them a 1—0 win over Chievo on 28 November in which he had performed an acrobatic save on a Roberto Baronio free kickchanging direction after the ball was deflected midflight.
Decline in form[ edit ] In —06Milan went trophyless in both domestic and European competition for the first time since — They finished second and three points behind Juventus in Serie Abefore being implicated in the Calciopoli match-fixing scandal. The Rossoneri lost as many matches five in the first half of the season as they had the entire previous year while conceding 22 goals in that game span, with Dida not keeping a clean sheet until the fourth matchday, a 2—0 win over Lazio.
Return to Champions League victory[ edit ] Dida and Giampaolo Pazzini in Milan's goalless home draw against Fiorentina on 6 May As punishment for their involvement in the Calciopoli scandal, Milan began the —07 Serie A season with an eight-point deficit in the standings, and finished fourth behind Internazionale, Roma and Lazio.
Following a strike by Lazio's Stephen Makinwa in Milan's 2—1 season opener on 10 SeptemberDida did not allow a league goal for the next minutes. Milan additionally had to qualify for the —07 Champions Leagueaccomplished by defeating Red Star Belgrade on aggregate, and the Rossoneri then proceeded to top their group as Dida kept four clean sheets and conceded only twice in that six-match span.
On 3 Octoberduring Milan's Champions League group stage match against Celtic in GlasgowCeltic striker Scott McDonald scored the match-winner in the 90th minute to seal a 2—1 victory. As the Celtic players celebrated, year-old Celtic fan Robert McHendry entered the pitch and tapped Dida on the shoulder while running through Milan's penalty area. Dida initially gave chase but after a few steps collapsed to the ground while holding the side of his face, and he was stretchered off and substituted.
Revival, rivalry, and closure[ edit ] Dida was among a clog of goalkeepers on the Milan roster at the start of the —09 season that included Kalac, Abbiati, and signing Marco Storari. In —10with Carlo Ancelotti replaced by Leonardo as head coach after nine seasons, Milan finished third behind Internazionale and Juventus in Serie A for the second straight year, and were eliminated by Manchester United on a 7—2 aggregate in the Champions League round of Dida was unable to compete for the number-one jersey after missing the preseason with injury, and served as Storari's deputy until making his season debut as an injury substitute for the third time in his Milan career, in a 2—1 defeat of Roma on 18 October