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Challenging Blaise PascalDescartes took the first set of barometric readings in Stockholm to see if atmospheric pressure could be used in forecasting the weather. Soon it became clear they did not like each other; she did not like his mechanical philosophynor did he appreciate her interest in Ancient Greek. By 15 JanuaryDescartes had seen Christina only four or five times.

On 1 February he contracted pneumonia and died on 11 February. Pies, a German scholar, published a book questioning this account, based on a letter by Johann van Wullen, who had been sent by Christina to treat him, something Descartes refused, and more arguments against its veracity have been raised since.

His manuscripts came into the possession of Claude ClerselierChanut's brother-in-law, and "a devout Catholic who has begun the process of turning Descartes into a saint by cutting, adding and publishing his letters selectively. Cartesianism Initially, Descartes arrives at only a single first principle: Thought cannot be separated from me, therefore, I exist Discourse on the Method and Principles of Philosophy.

  • René Descartes

Most famously, this is known as cogito ergo sum English: Therefore, Descartes concluded, if he doubted, then something or someone must be doing the doubting, therefore the very fact that he doubted proved his existence. Descartes concludes that he can be certain that he exists because he thinks. But in what form? He perceives his body through the use of the senses; however, these have previously been unreliable. So Descartes determines that the only indubitable knowledge is that he is a thinking thing.

Thinking is what he does, and his power must come from his essence. Descartes defines "thought" cogitatio as "what happens in me such that I am immediately conscious of it, insofar as I am conscious of it". Thinking is thus every activity of a person of which the person is immediately conscious. In this manner, Descartes proceeds to construct a system of knowledge, discarding perception as unreliable and, instead, admitting only deduction as a method.

Mind-body problem and Mind-body dualism L'homme Descartes, influenced by the automatons on display throughout the city of Paris, began to investigate the connection between the mind and body, and how the two interact. Known as Cartesian dualism or Mind-Body Dualismhis theory on the separation between the mind and the body went on to influence subsequent Western philosophies.

In Meditations on First PhilosophyDescartes attempted to demonstrate the existence of God and the distinction between the human soul and the body. Humans are a union of mind and body; [71] thus Descartes' dualism embraced the idea that mind and body are distinct but closely joined. While many contemporary readers of Descartes found the distinction between mind and body difficult to grasp, he thought it was entirely straightforward.

Descartes employed the concept of modes, which are the ways in which substances exist. In Principles of PhilosophyDescartes explained, "we can clearly perceive a substance apart from the mode which we say differs from it, whereas we cannot, conversely, understand the mode apart from the substance".

To perceive a mode apart from its substance requires an intellectual abstraction, [72] which Descartes explained as follows: The intellectual abstraction consists in my turning my thought away from one part of the contents of this richer idea the better to apply it to the other part with greater attention.

Thus, when I consider a shape without thinking of the substance or the extension whose shape it is, I make a mental abstraction. Thus Descartes reasoned that God is distinct from humans, and the body and mind of a human are also distinct from one another. But that the mind was utterly indivisible: Everything that happened, be it the motion of the stars or the growth of a treewas supposedly explainable by a certain purpose, goal or end that worked its way out within nature.

Aristotle called this the "final cause", and these final causes were indispensable for explaining the ways nature operated.

Eugenio Espejo - Wikipedia

With his theory on dualism Descartes fired the opening shot for the battle between the traditional Aristotelian science and the new science of Kepler and Galileo which denied the final cause for explaining nature. To a certain extent they tried to gemma fitzgerald dating in the dark it an eastern Rome.

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His death certificate was registered in the book for Indians, mestizos, blacks and mulattoes. Character[ edit ] Eugenio Espejo was an autodidactand he claimed with pride that he never left any book in his hands unread, and if he did, he would make up for it by observing nature. However, his desire to read everything indiscriminately sometimes led him to hasty judgments, which appear in his manuscripts.

He understood that reading was basic in the formation of the self, and his conscience drove him to critiques of the establishment, based on observation and in the application of the law of his time. He embraced equality between Indians and criollos, an ideal that was ignored during the future processes of independence.

Eugenio Espejo

He never traveled abroad but nonetheless understood the relation between microorganisms and the spreading of disease. The accusation of impiety was calculated to incite popular hatred against him. Espejo never lost his faith in Catholicism throughout his lifetime. He condemned the decadence of the clergy, but he never criticized the Church itself. El Nuevo Luciano de Quito ridiculed the outdated educational system maintained by the clergy. Espejo argued that the people of Quito were accustomed to adulation and that they admired any preacher who could quote the Bible in a pompous and insubstantial way.

La ciencia blancardina, in which Espejo claimed to be the author of the previous two works, condemned the results of the clergy's educational system: Through these three books, Espejo advanced the ideas of European and American scholars such as Feijoo and the Jesuits Verney and Guevara, among others. As a result, many religious orders modified their educational programs. Espejo resented the pseudointellectuals who misled the thought of the city of Quito, disregarding people who were actually knowledgeable.

As a result, the priests had no real idea of their duties towards society and God and had little inclination to study. In El Nuevo Luciano de Quito, he lamented the large number of quacks who pretended to be doctors. In La ciencia blancardina he continued his attack on these quacks while attacking clerics who worked as physicians without adequate medical education. The letter showed a profound knowledge of theology and dogma.

It analyzed the historical beginnings of indulgences and their development and cited decrees and bulls written about abuses of indulgences. Once more, this work showed its author's deep knowledge of this religious subject and his appreciation of its standing in the 18th century. The Immaculate Conception was not formally decreed as dogma until His works between that year and clearly show the influence of Enlightenment philosophers, whose ideas Espejo adapted to local conditions.

As many thinkers realized the power of economics as a social force, Espejo, influenced by Feijoo and Adam Smith among others, showed his desire for commercial and agricultural reforms, especially conservation and proper use of land. To advance these ideas, he founded the Escuela de la Concordia School of Concord. Memorias was dedicated to Fernando Cuadrado, who opposed the monopoly. In the first, he argued that the monopoly would leave workers without jobs and that it would mean the loss of capital invested in cinchona trees.

In the second part, he made a number of suggestions, such as developing certain "natural" products of a region with the aim of exporting them. For instance, in Chile the production of wines should be prioritized, in Argentina the production of leather, and so forth.

In the third part he showed that many workers benefited from the quinine industry, that without it there would be unemployment and unrest, and that the Crown should designate officials to regulate the proper cultivation of the cinchona tree, including reforestation.