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Gambling was referred to as "gaming" which transitioned into legitimate business.
This canopied five-block area features Due to the realization of many revitalization efforts, was dubbed "The Year of Downtown. Much of the landscape is rocky and arid with desert vegetation and wildlife. It can be subjected to torrential flash floods, although much has been done to mitigate the effects of flash floods through improved drainage systems. According to the United States Census Bureauthe city has a total area of Nevada is the third most seismically active state in the U.
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Due to water resource issues, there has been a movement to encourage xeriscapes. Another part of conservation efforts is scheduled watering days for residential landscaping.
Environmental Protection Agency grant in funded a program that analyzed and forecast growth and environmental impacts through the year BWhtypical of the Mojave Desert in which it lies. This climate is typified by long, very hot summers; warm transitional seasons; and short, mild to chilly winters. The summer months of June through September are very hot, though moderated by extremely low humidity.
July is the hottest month, with an average daytime high of The window of opportunity for the monsoon to affect Las Vegas usually falls between July and August, although this is inconsistent and varies considerably in its impact from year to year. Like all seasons, sunshine is abundant. December is both the year's coolest and cloudiest month, with an average daytime high of Owing to its elevation that ranges from 2, feet to 3, feet, Las Vegas experiences markedly cooler winters than other areas of the Mojave Desert and the adjacent Sonoran Desert that are closer to sea level.
John Manning  suggests that where polygyny is common, men face intense competition for wives and are more likely to be completely unsuccessful in reproducing, and the result is strong selection of males for traits which are adaptive for successful reproduction. He proposes a link to skin color through selection of males for testosterone-mediated traits which confer an ability to successfully compete for females.
Voltarelli, Albanese e 'Onda calabra': parlano Il Parto delle Nuvole Pesanti
He suggests testosterone makes the human immune system less competent to resist pathogens. In this view the antimicrobial properties of melanin help mitigate the susceptibility to disease that polygyny induces by increasing testosteronization.
According to this argument, the anti-infective qualities of melanin were more important than protection from ultraviolet light in the evolution of the darkest skin types. Manning asserts that skin color is more correlated with the occurrence of polygyny — explicable by it having an antimicrobial function — than the latitudinal gradient in intensity of ultraviolet radiation, and he points to the lack of very dark skin at equatorial latitudes of the New World and the relatively light skin of Khoisan people in Africa.
Sexual selection in humans
Jablonski and Chaplin took the spectrometer's global ultraviolet measurements and compared them with published data on skin color in indigenous populations from more than 50 countries. There was an unmistakable correlation: The weaker the ultraviolet light, the fairer the skin.
Rogers concluded that, at the time of the evolutionary separation of chimpanzees and humans, the common ancestors of all humans had light skin that was covered by dark hair. Additionally, our closest extant relative, the chimpanzee, has light skin covered by thick body hair.
Under these conditions there was less photodestruction of folateand so the evolutionary pressure stopping lighter-skinned gene variants from surviving was reduced. In addition, lighter skin is able to generate more vitamin D cholecalciferol than darker skin, so it would have represented a health benefit in reduced sunlight if there were limited sources of vitamin D.
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He contends that the diversity of hair and eye color in Northeast European populations originated as a consequence of intense female-female competition, and is an adaptation for reproductive success in women. All these qualities are considered courtship adaptations that have been favored through sexual selection.
He believes that human culture arose through sexual selection for creative traits.
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In that view, many human artifacts could be considered subject to sexual selection as part of the extended phenotype, for instance clothing that enhances sexually selected traits. The first period of brain expansion occurred 2.
The second period occurredyears ago, with the emergence of archaic Homo sapiens. Miller argues that the rapid increases in brain size would have occurred by a positive feedback loop resulting in a Fisherian runaway selection for larger brains. Another hypothesis  proposes that human intelligence is a courtship indicator of health and resistance against parasites and pathogens which are deleterious to human cognitive capabilities.
Among his vocal critics were some of Darwin's supporters, such as Alfred Wallacewho argued that animals and birds do not choose mates based on their beauty or fine plumagesand that the artistic faculties in humans belong to their spiritual nature and therefore cannot be connected to natural selection, which only affects the animal nature. Joan Roughgardenciting elements of sexual behavior in animals and humans that cannot be explained by the sexual-selection model, suggested that the function of sex in human evolution was primarily social.