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Created by Greg Berlanti, Marc Guggenheim, Andrew Kreisberg. 12, AM on TNT .. Juliana Harkavy in Arrow () Arrow () David Ramsey at an event for Arrow () Stephen Amell and Melissa Benoist in Arrow () Stephen .. Release Date: Aspect Ratio: HD. See full technical specs». Edit. Based on DC Comics' Green Arrow, an affluent playboy becomes a vengeful superhero, 1. Pilot. 42m. Presumed dead for five years before being discovered on a Oliver sets his sights on taking down a criminal with ties to the Chinese triad: Martin Somers, who's being prosecuted by Laurel. McKenna Hall on a date. Parsifal (WWV ) is an opera in three acts by German composer Richard Wagner. Wagner did not resume work on Parsifal for eight years, during which time he . Bayreuth lifted its monopoly on Parsifal on 1 January in the Teatro .. libretto for Parsifal by , and the original drafts of the story date back to
At the time, there was no rescue program and no established field methods. Locals had reported finds at a few ice patches in the Jotunheimen Mountains, and our job was to check two of them out.
The first year was very special, and I was hooked for life! The Juvfonne ice patch was the first site we checked. I remember being skeptical as to the date of the objects. Come on, they looked like something lost the year before! I was used to only finding artefacts of stone and metal during archaeological fieldwork. Since then, I have heard the same reaction from colleagues and field visitors many times. Elling holding a completely preserved year-old arrow.
Julian Martinsen, Oppland County Council. When we checked the second site, I began to realize that these objects really were old, and that they had been preserved by the ice. This site had Iron Age arrows, and the shape of the arrowheads showed that there was no way that they were modern. This site also gave a preview of some of the challenges we would face rescuing individual finds.
We found a very fragile split bird feather from Viking Age fletching, which was frozen to stones and sediments. There was nothing in the archaeological field manuals on how to deal with such a find.
The first field season was a real eye-opener. It would not be wrong to state that the learning curve was as steep as the mountains of Jotunheimen! Yes, I was all set, but was a downer. The winter brought a lot of snow, and the summer was cold, so no melting and no fieldwork.
This is also part of glacial archaeology. We understood that this was good for artefact preservation, but at the same time, we were disappointed by not being able to go into the field. Elling, Andreas, Enok and Lars surveying for artefacts at the ice.
Espen Finstad, Oppland County Council. The melting was back in By then, we had planned a large-scale systematic survey of the Juvfonne site. This was a big challenge.
I mean, we are talking a survey area of scree covering more than seven soccer fields at an altitude of more than m! Using a combined team of archaeologists and volunteers, we were able to do the job in two weeks of long working days. We were helped by the fact that Juvfonne, as probably the only archaeological ice patch site in the world, is situated near a paved road and a mountain cabin.
The Lendbreen basecamp in August In hindsight, having just 15 minutes walking distance to a three-course meal and a comfortable bed seems a bit like cheating. Glacial archaeology is not always like this? No, Juvfonne is one of a kind. The other sites are far from any roads and most nights are spent in tents above m.
We try to establish the camp as close to the ice as possible to save time. Conditions may be very rough in the high mountains, even in August.
We have been snowed-in for days, and have had tents collapse during the night due to strong winds. If you were to pick three absolute highlights from your job as a glacier archaeologist, which ones would you pick? Oh man, it is hard to pick only three highlights from a decade of glacial archaeology. We have discovered finds of international significance nearly every field season. The walk up this mountain is long and steep, with a fantastic view towards Mount Glittertind m.
The ice patch is quite small, and situated in a slope with abysses on each side. The experience of being the first archaeologists here and discovering hundreds of scaring sticks and other finds in front of the ice is just unbeatable.
Bryan Magee see Parsifal as Wagner's last great espousal of Schopenhauerian philosophy. Moreover, he displays compassion in the face of sexual temptation act 2, scene 3. Schopenhaurian philosophy also suggests that the only escape from the ever-present temptations of human life is through negation of the Willand overcoming sexual temptation is in particular a strong form of negation of the Will. When viewed in this light, Parsifal, with its emphasis on Mitleid "compassion" is a natural follow-on to Tristan und Isoldewhere Schopenhauer's influence is perhaps more obvious, with its focus on Sehnen "yearning".
Indeed, Wagner originally considered including Parsifal as a character in act 3 of Tristan, but later rejected the idea. Wagner is the composer most often associated with leitmotifs, and Parsifal makes liberal use of them. These two, and Parsifal's own motif, are repeated during the course of the opera. Other characters, especially Klingsor, Amfortas, and "The Voice", which sings the so-called Tormotif "Fool's motive"have their own particular leitmotifs.
Wagner uses the Dresden amen to represent the Grail, this motif being a sequence of notes he would have known since his childhood in Dresden.
Chromaticism[ edit ] Many music theorists have used Parsifal to explore difficulties in analyzing the chromaticism of late 19th century music. Theorists such as David Lewin and Richard Cohn have explored the importance of certain pitches and harmonic progressions both in structuring and symbolizing the work.
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Notable excerpts[ edit ] As is common in mature Wagner operas, Parsifal was composed such that each act was a continuous flow of music; hence there are no free-standing arias in the work. However a number of orchestral excerpts from the opera were arranged by Wagner himself and remain in the concert repertory. The prelude to act 1 is frequently performed either alone or in conjunction with an arrangement of the "Good Friday" music which accompanies the second half of act 3 scene 1.
Kundry's long solo in act 2 "Ich sah das Kind" is occasionally performed in concert, as is Amfortas' lament from act 1 "Wehvolles Erbe". Instrumentation[ edit ] The score for Parsifal calls for three flutesthree oboesone English hornthree clarinets in B-flat and A, one bass clarinet in B-flat and A, three bassoonsone contrabassoon ; four horns in F, three trumpets in F, three trombonesone tuba6 onstage trumpets in F, 6 onstage trombones; a percussion section that includes four timpani requiring two playerstenor drums4 onstage church bellsone onstage thunder machine ; two harps and strings.
Parsifal is one of only two works by Wagner in which he used the contrabassoon. The other is the Symphony in C. The bells that draw the knights to the Grail ceremony at Monsalvat in acts 1 and 3 have often proved problematic to stage. For the earlier performances of Parsifal in Bayreuth, Wagner had the Parsifal bella piano frame with four strings, constructed as a substitute for church bells.
For the first performances, the bells were combined with tam-tam and gongs. However, the bell was used with the tuba, four tam-tams tuned to the pitch of the four chime notes and another tam-tam on which a roll is executed by using a drumstick.
In modern-day performances, the Parsifal bell has been replaced with tubular bells or synthesizers to produce the desired notes.