Potassium argon dating volcanic ash bali || uzveli.info
Potassium-argon dating, method of determining the time of origin of rocks by age of some meteorites is as old as 4,,, years, and volcanic rocks as. The relative age and inferred identity of volcanic ash layers can be determined by radiocarbon dating, given the occurrence of closely associated carbonaceous. Potassium–argon dating, abbreviated K–Ar dating, is a radiometric dating method used in . It has also been indispensable in other early east African sites with a history of volcanic activity such as Hadar, Ethiopia. The K–Ar method continues.
The ratio of K to Ar is plotted. Note that time is expressed in millions of years on this graph, as opposed to thousands of years in the C graph. Click on the "Show Movie" button below to view this animation. How are Samples Processed? Clicking on the "Show Movie" button below will bring up an animation that illustrates how a K-Ar sample is processed and the calculations involved in arriving at a date. This is actually a mini-simulator, in that it processes a different sample each time and generates different dates.
K-Ar Processing Limitations on K-Ar Dating The Potassium-Argon dating method is an invaluable tool for those archaeologists and paleoanthropologists studying the earliest evidence for human evolution. As with any dating technique, there are some significant limitations. The technique works well for almost any igneous or volcanic rock, provided that the rock gives no evidence of having gone through a heating-recrystallization process after its initial formation.
For this reason, only trained geologists should collect the samples in the field. This technique is most useful to archaeologists and paleoanthropologists when lava flows or volcanic tuffs form strata that overlie strata bearing the evidence of human activity.
Dates obtained with this method then indicate that the archaeological materials cannot be younger than the tuff or lava stratum. As the simulation of the processing of potassium-argon samples showed, the standard deviations for K-Ar dates are so large that resolution higher than about a million years is almost impossible to achieve. By comparison, radiocarbon dates seem almost as precise as a cesium clock!
Potassium-argon dating is accurate from 4. Atyears, only 0. I am not trying to say that they are falsifying their data.
On the contrary they wouldn't need to falsify anything. Historical data can be so inconclusive that a host of positions is possible from almost any set of data that is collected. Man is thought to have progressed through a long period of prehistory cave man's experience before some sort of civilization is started. Only after civilization begins can we begin to gather some sort of data from the discovery of the artifacts that are found Pieces of pottery, etc. The artifacts according to today's traditional thinking should be slowly progressing in complexity as it is thought that man is progressing in his abilities and ideas that he uses.
If man is thought to have progressed over long periods of time, even within the later civilization phase of his existence, than surely as the artifacts are recovered from archaeological sites, the theories and ideas developed will reflect the scientist's own original thinking.
This is how science normally works. They normally work within a fairly well defined set of theories that have become a paradigm. A paradigm is a theory that is so well accepted that no one seriously questions it. This way of doing science is most prominent when the evidence is fragmentary at best.
Assumptions throughout the scientific process are extremely important because they must hold the facts together. Only when specific data comes that either substantiates or falsifies the previously held assumption, can it be known if the thinking was originally correct. Unfortunately, with fragmentary data, the artifact that might falsify a theory is extremely hard in coming or it could easily be overlooked.
So the problem must be solved by a host of assumptions that will probably never be tested. There is also the danger that good data could be thrown out because it doesn't fit with established thinking. For instance, I am told that there are sometimes found in the same level both "early" forms and "modern" forms of man.
Because of what is considered to be an impossibility, the modern forms are assumed to have been examples of intrusions. The modern form is considered to have been buried much later in spite of the fact that the specimens are found in the same level.
The areas of science, which are the most successful, which the public notices, are the amazing discoveries in medicine, biology, space exploration, and the like.
These are the areas that deal with the here and now. If an experiment is conducted and the information needed to answer the problem is not forthcoming, then another experiment can be designed to answer the problem. The process can continue until some answer to the problem is understood. The problem is only limited by money, ingenuity, and the technical difficulties that have to be surmounted.
In addition to the above limitations of science, historical science is limited by the fragmentary nature of the artifacts it is able to find. In effect, the accuracy of ideas is limited by the assumptions chosen by the researchers.
It has as its basis of understanding, various assumptions which concern the conditions of the Earth for hundreds of millions of years. These assumptions were originated within an atmosphere of long age preexisting ideas.
Scientists almost never look for indicators in nature that might speak of a very young age for the world's history. Most scientists do not believe that the short chronology of the Bible has any validity at all and most would consider it counterproductive to pursue such a course of investigation. If in fact such an answer were found, it would be quickly dismissed. It would be assumed that there was something wrong with the idea or the data, and a new scenario would be sought.
Some papers give evidence of presenting filtered data. What is meant by filtered data, is that they only present the data that agrees with evolutionary thinking. The other data is eliminated. Potassium-argon dating and the Cenozoic mammalian chronology of North America. Am J Sci ; This paper is now considered to be a classic paper. Yet they use biotite in an uncritical manor in other areas where the dates they obtained matched their expectations.
On Pagewe can also note: Thus, of some 65 samples collected by M. Skinner, only 10 could be used.MOUNT AGUNG ERUPTION IN BALI. INSIDE THE DANGER ZONE
Sometimes the whole rock basalt date is reported, but sometimes only a mineral fraction is reported from the basalt, like biotite or sanidine. Why is it that one type of date is used one time and not at another time, is not discussed in the paper. As Paul Giem notes: Thus one could pick the dates that fit one's expectations and create a very impressive list of dates with close agreement without there being more than a general correlation of most dates with one's expectations.
They think of the long age scenario of evolution as being fact. They do not believe that there is any alternative way to look at history.
So when the data does not come out right, it is only natural that they assume that there is something wrong with the dates that do not fit the long age viewpoint. However, when they turn around and say that the data supports the evolutionary viewpoint and not the Creationary viewpoint.
This is not right! The data does not support long ages. So, many people try to say something like: But this is not true either, the weight of evidence does not prove anything. We do not have an issue of weight of evidence. Rather, what we have is weight of interpretation!
This controversy is not over data. The data can go either way. Very intelligent people believe in the long history of the earth and they have good data to support them. There is no question about it. However, I look at that same data and I come to very different conclusions. This process is legitimate! There is such a thing as multiple interpretation to the data base. There is no proof for either position. The Assumptions used in K-Ar Dating On this web page I want to discuss a possible scenario that would allow K-Ar dates to indicate a short age chronology.
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Such a discussion might never be allowed in normal scientific circles because of the assumptions they choose to believe as being true. There is such a strong consensus of opinion on K-Ar dating and other similar topics that deal with the history of the Earth that alternative viewpoints are probably viewed as being counterproductive.
Before we start, lets look at the specific K-Ar dating assumptions. The rate of decay half-lifeand the branching ratio, of K have not changed. The material in question lost all its argon at an identifiable time, the reset time. No argon has been lost since the time the rock was reset, or set to zero.
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No potassium has been gained or lost since the reset time, except by decay. The ratio of K to total K is constant. The total K, Ar, and Ar in the material in question can all be measured accurately. The seventh assumption is one that scientists are doing their best to fulfill.
Potassium-argon dating | uzveli.info
We should also be able to safely make this assumption. The sixth assumption is also fairly secure. When the concentrations of the various K isotopes are measured, the results are always the same. The fifth assumption is fairly safe. There are some cases where K has been gained or lost; However, the mineral itself has been noticeably altered. The fourth assumption is probably satisfied for most samples.
However, this is an assumption that could be challenged. If the rock was heated in the presence of Argon from the earth's mantle, or perhaps in some primordial Argon which might have had a higher concentration of Ar 36; we might have problems making this assumption. According to most texts on Potassium-Argon dating, the third assumption is fairly commonly violated. Metamorphism, weathering, and reheating are some of the processes that are mentioned to cause a loss of Argon in the crystal of a rock.
Most sedimentary rocks are thought to lose Argon because the crystal structure leaks Argon. A loss of Argon would cause the rock to date younger than it should according to evolutionary thought. This is probably the assumption that scientists make when they choose to present filtered data in a scientific paper.
They see the young dates as those samples that have lost Argon. It is an assumption that they probably view as having no alternatives, yet if this same issue was ever pursued, it might uncover other possibilities suggesting a short age time scenario. Another possibility is that the second assumption is being violated rather than the third.
Some samples will not be fully reset, initially. Thus these rocks give a date which is older than what normally would happen if the rocks were fully reset.
These older dating rocks give the kind of dates as expected by the scientific community. On the other hand, those rocks that date younger, would not need to have had Argon leak from the crystal after the time when the reseting process occurs. Instead, the rock was probably more completely reset when it was molten. This means that there was less Argon in the rocks to begin with, because the younger dating rocks were more fully set to zero in the reseting process.
The second assumption sounds logical at first. Many text books say it is self-evident. The Age of the Earth. Stanford University Press, p. This is because Ar 40 is an inert gas that does not combine chemically with any other element and so escapes easily from rocks when they are heated.
Thus, while a rock is molten the Ar 40 formed by the decay of K 40 escapes from the liquid. The first assumption is often challenged by some creationists.
Bali volcano shoots ash hundreds of metres into the air
They think that the radioactivity could have speeded up during the flood producing dates with long ages. But there is no known mechanism to explain or predict the increased rate of radioactivity. However there may be a new development in the field of nuclear reactions that could change this situation. People around the world are working on active "Cold Fusion" reactions. There is another group that has been conducting experiments for the express purpose of speeding up the transmutation process thus changing the half-life characteristics of radioactive materials.
Some of these reactions occur under admittedly extremely mild conditions, However, it is another question to suppose that these newly discovered processes can occur or did occur in natural conditions, in the history of our world. Dating mechanisms such as Carbon, work within the creationary paradigm without the need of having a change in half-lives. So since the time of the flood, there is no evidence that there has been any change in half-lives of radioactive materials.
On the other hand, It is possible that the creation event could have caused changes in the half-lives of nuclides. For more on Cold Fusion and the creation event click on Extinct Nuclides.
The majority of the fossils are found in the phanerozoic from Cambrian up to the Pleistocene layers of the Geologic column.
This includes the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic layers. These are considered by most Creationists to have been laid down during the time of the flood. It is possible that the sedimentary layers in the upper Precambrian are also flood deposits See my Geology page.
So the volcanic rock and ash within these layers would have been been produced during the flood event. Only the rocks in the precambrian layers could have been affected by the creation event. Everything else would have been redeposited or re-melted in the global flood.