# Radiocarbon dating calculations for nurses

### Carbon 14 Dating - Math Central

So, we rely on radiometric dating to calculate their ages. Radiometric dating, or radioactive dating as it is sometimes called, is a method used to. Carbon 14 Dating Calculator. To find the percent of Carbon 14 remaining after a given number of years, type in the number of years and click on Calculate. Ever wondered how scientists know the age of old bones in an ancient site or how old a scrap of linen is? The technique used is called carbon.

Ninety-five percent of the activity of Oxalic Acid from the year is equal to the measured activity of the absolute radiocarbon standard which is wood.

The activity of wood is corrected for radioactive decay to Thusis year 0 BP by convention in radiocarbon dating and is deemed to be the 'present'.

The Oxalic acid standard was made from a crop of sugar beet. There were lbs made. The isotopic ratio of HOx I is The Oxalic acid standard which was developed is no longer commercially available.

In the early 's, a group of 12 laboratories measured the ratios of the two standards. The ratio of the activity of Oxalic acid II to 1 is 1.

The isotopic ratio of HOx II is So if we go to another half-life, if we go another half-life from there, I had five grams of carbon So let me actually copy and paste this one. This is what I started with. Now after another half-life-- you can ignore all my little, actually let me erase some of this up here.

## Carbon Dating System

Let me clean it up a little bit. After one one half-life, what happens? Well I now am left with five grams of carbon And by the law of large numbers, half of them will have converted into nitrogen So we'll have even more conversion into nitrogen So now half of that five grams. So now we're only left with 2. And how much nitrogen? Well we have another two and a half went to nitrogen.

So now we have seven and a half grams of nitrogen And we could keep going further into the future, and after every half-life, 5, years, we will have half of the carbon that we started.

But we'll always have an infinitesimal amount of carbon. But let me ask you a question. Let's say I'm just staring at one carbon atom. Let's say I just have this one carbon atom. You know, I've got its nucleus, with its c So it's got its six protons.

It's got its eight neutrons. It's got its six electrons. What's going to happen? What's going to happen after one second? Well, I don't know. It'll probably still be carbon, but there's some probability that after one second it will have already turned into nitrogen What's going to happen after one billion years? Well, after one billion years I'll say, well you know, it'll probably have turned into nitrogen at that point, but I'm not sure.

This might be the one ultra-stable nucleus that just happened to, kind of, go against the odds and stay carbon So after one half-life, if you're just looking at one atom after 5, years, you don't know whether this turned into a nitrogen or not. Now, if you look at it over a huge number of atoms. I mean, if you start approaching, you know, Avogadro's number or anything larger-- I erased that. I don't know which half, but half of them will turn into it.

So you might get a question like, I start with, oh I don't know, let's say I start with 80 grams of something with, let's just call it x, and it has a half-life of two years. I'm just making up this compound. And then let's say we go into a time machine and we look back at our sample, and let's say we only have 10 grams of our sample left. And we want to know how much time has passed by. So 10 grams left of x. How much time, you know, x is decaying the whole time, how much time has passed?

Well let's think about it. We're starting at time, 0 with 80 grams. After two years, how much are we going to have left? We're going to have 40 grams.

### Carbon 14 Dating Calculator

So t equals 2. But after two more years, how many are we going to have? We're going to have 20 grams. So this is t equals 3 I'm sorry, this is t equals 4 years. And then after two more years, I'll only have half of that left again.

## Half-life and carbon dating

Solving for the unknown, k, we take the natural logarithm of both sides. Thus, our equation for modeling the decay of 14C is given by. Other radioactive isotopes are also used to date fossils. The half-life for 14C is approximately years, therefore the 14C isotope is only useful for dating fossils up to about 50, years old. Fossils older than 50, years may have an undetectable amount of 14C.

For older fossils, an isotope with a longer half-life should be used. For example, the radioactive isotope potassium decays to argon with a half life of 1.

Other isotopes commonly used for dating include uranium half-life of 4.